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Thompson, B.; Lowe, S. 2008. Sediment Quality Assessments in the San Francisco Estuary. SFEI Contribution No. 574. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, Ca.
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Mckee, L.; Lowe, J.; Dusterhoff, S.; Foley, M.; Shaw, S. 2020. Sediment Monitoring and Modeling Strategy. Sediment Monitoring and Modeling Strategy. SFEI Contribution No. 1016. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Dusterhoff, S.; McKnight, K.; Grenier, L.; Kauffman, N. 2021. Sediment for Survival: A Strategy for the Resilience of Bay Wetlands in the Lower San Francisco Estuary. SFEI Contribution No. 1015. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This report analyses current data and climate projections to determine how much natural sediment may be available for tidal marshes and mudflats and how much supplemental sediment may be needed under different future scenarios. These sediment supply and demand estimates are combined with scientific knowledge of natural physical and biological processes to offer a strategy for sediment delivery that will allow these wetlands to survive a changing climate and provide benefits to people and nature for many decades to come. The approach developed in this report may also be useful beyond San Francisco Bay because shoreline protection, flood risk-management, and looming sediment deficits are common issues facing coastal communities around the world.

The resilience of San Francisco Bay shore habitats, such as tidal marshes and mudflats, is essential to all who live in the Bay Area. Tidal marshes and tidal flats (also known as mudflats) are key components of the shore habitats, collectively called baylands, which protect billions of dollars of bay-front housing and infrastructure (including neighborhoods, business parks, highways, sewage treatment plants, and landfills). They purify the Bay’s water, support endangered wildlife, nurture fisheries, and provide people access to nature within the urban environment. Bay Area residents showed their commitment to restoring these critical habitats when they voted for a property tax to pay for large-scale tidal marsh restoration. However, climate change poses a great threat, because there may not be enough natural sediment supply for tidal marshes and mudflats to gain elevation fast enough to keep pace with sea-level rise.

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Fregoso, T. A.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Jaffe, B. E. 2023. Sediment Deposition, Erosion, and Bathymetric Change in San Francisco Bay, California, 1971–1990 and 1999–2020. United State Geological Survey: Santa Cruz, CA.

Bathymetric change analyses document historical patterns of sediment deposition and erosion, providing valuable insight into the sediment dynamics of coastal systems, including pathways of sediment and sediment-bound contaminants. In 2014 and 2015, the California Ocean Protection Council, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Coastal Management, provided funding for new bathymetric surveys of large portions of San Francisco Bay. A total of 93 bathymetric surveys were conducted during this 2-year period, using a combination of interferometric sidescan and multibeam sonar systems. These data, along with recent NOAA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and private contractor surveys collected from 1999 to 2020 (hereinafter referred to as 2010s), were used to create the most comprehensive bathymetric digital elevation models (DEMs) of San Francisco Bay since the 1980s. Comparing DEMs created from these 2010s surveys with USGS DEMs created from NOAA’s 1971–1990 (hereinafter referred to as 1980s) surveys provides information on the quantities and patterns of erosion and deposition in San Francisco Bay during the 9 to 47 years between surveys. This analysis reveals that in the areas surveyed in both the 1980s and 2010s, the bay floor lost about 34 million cubic meters of sediment since the 1980s. Results from this study can be used to assess how San Francisco Bay has responded to changes in the system, such as sea-level rise and variation in sediment supply from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and local tributaries, and supports the creation of a new, system-wide sediment budget. This report provides data on the quantities and patterns of sediment volume change in San Francisco Bay for ecosystem managers that are pertinent to various sediment-related issues, including restoration of tidal marshes, exposure of legacy contaminated sediment, and strategies for the beneficial use of dredged sediment.

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Fregoso, T. A.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Jaffe, B. E. 2023. Sediment deposition, erosion, and bathymetric change in San Francisco Bay, California, 1971–1990 and 1999–2020. United States Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center: Santa Cruz, CA.

Bathymetric change analyses document historical patterns of sediment deposition and erosion, providing valuable insight into the sediment dynamics of coastal systems, including pathways of sediment and sediment-bound contaminants. In 2014 and 2015, the Office for Coastal Management, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Coastal Management, provided funding for new bathymetric surveys of large portions of San Francisco Bay. A total of 93 bathymetric surveys were conducted during this 2-year period, using a combination of interferometric sidescan and multibeam sonar systems. These data, along with recent NOAA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and private contractor surveys collected from 1999 to 2020 (hereinafter referred to as 2010s), were used to create the most comprehensive bathymetric digital elevation models (DEMs) of San Francisco Bay since the 1980s. Comparing DEMs created from these 2010s surveys with USGS DEMs created from NOAA’s 1971–1990 (hereinafter referred to as 1980s) surveys provides information on the quantities and patterns of erosion and deposition in San Francisco Bay during the 9 to 47 years between surveys. This analysis reveals that in the areas surveyed in both the 1980s and 2010s, the bay floor lost about 34 million cubic meters of sediment since the 1980s. Results from this study can be used to assess how San Francisco Bay has responded to changes in the system, such as sea-level rise and variation in sediment supply from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and local tributaries, and supports the creation of a new, system-wide sediment budget. This report provides data on the quantities and patterns of sediment volume change in San Francisco Bay for ecosystem managers that are pertinent to various sediment-related issues, including restoration of tidal marshes, exposure of legacy contaminated sediment, and strategies for the beneficial use of dredged sediment.

Thorne, K. M.; Bristow, M. L. 2023. Sediment Deposition and Accretion Data from a Tidal Salt Marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California 2021-2022. U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center .

The U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center collected sediment and accretion data at a wave-exposed tidal salt marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. Sediment traps and feldspar marker horizons (MH) were deployed along transects of increasing distance from the sediment source, at primary, secondary and tertiary marsh channels/bay. Data were collected bi-monthly over two month periods in summer 2021 and winter 2021/2022. Included here are trap and MH plot locations, calculated sediment fluxes at each station by deployment period, annual accretion rates, and covariates associated with sediment deposition and accretion including vegetation structure and elevation. This project aimed to assess the temporal and spatial patterns in sediment deposition in order to better understand sediment delivery and marsh resilience to sea-level rise.

Daum, T.; Lowe, S.; Toia, R.; Bartow, G.; Fairey, R.; Anderson, J.; Jones, J. 2000. Sediment Contamination in San Leandro Bay, CA. SFEI Contribution No. 48. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA.
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Bigelow, P.; Pearce, S.; McKee, L. J. .; Gilbreath, A. N. 2008. A Sediment Budget for Two Reaches of Alameda Creek. SFEI Contribution No. 550. San Francisco Estuary Institute.
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Phillips, J. H.; Baumgartner, D. J. 1987. The Screening of Problems Relating to the San Francisco Bay_Delta. SFEI Contribution No. 138. San Francisco Estuary Insitute: Richmond, CA. p 77.
Lin, D.; Sutton, R.; Sun, J.; Ross, J. 2018. Screening of Pharmaceuticals in San Francisco Bay Wastewater. SFEI Contribution No. 910. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Collins, J. N.; Lowe, S.; Pearce, S.; Roberts, C. 2014. Santa Rosa Plain Wetlands Profile: A Demonstration of the CaliforniaWetland and Riparian Area Monitoring Plan. SFEI Contribution No. 726. San Francisco Estuary Institute - Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA. p 46.
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Lowe, S. 2020. Santa Clara County Five Watersheds Assessment: A Synthesis of Ecological Data Collection and Analysis Conducted by Valley Water. Pearce, S., Salomon, M., Collins, J., Titus, D., Eds.. SFEI Contribution No. 963. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond. CA. p 71.

This report synthesizes the baseline assessments for Santa Clara County’s five watersheds to present similarities, differences, and compare ecological condition in streams across watersheds and their subregions, San Francisco Bay-Delta ecoregion, and statewide based on CRAM. It also interprets the assessment results and comparisons to identify risks to stream conditions, and opportunities for stream stewardship. Project D5’s baseline assessments establish a monitoring and assessment framework for evaluating the performance of Valley Water’s programs, projects, maintenance activities, and on-the-ground stewardship actions.

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Davis, J.; Yee, D.; Fairey, R.; Sigala, M. 2017. San Leandro Bay PCB Study Data Report. SFEI Contribution No. 855. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Salomon, M.; Dusterhoff, S. D.; Askevold, R. A.; Grossinger, R. M. 2016. San Francisquito Creek Baylands: Landscape Change Metrics Analysis. Flood Control 2.0. SFEI Contribution No. 784. San Francisco Estuary Institute - Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA. p 12.

Major Findings
Over the past 150 years, lower San Francisquito Creek and the adjacent baylands have been modified for the sake of land reclamation and flood control. This study focused on developing an understanding of the magnitude of habitat change since the mid-19th century through comparisons of key historical and contemporary landscape-scale habitat features, as well as several key landscape metrics that relate to ecological functions and landscape resilience. The major findings from the analyses conducted for this study are as follows:
• Historically, the San Francisquito Creek Baylands included a mosaic of habitat types, including an extensive tidal marsh plain with salt pannes and an expansive tidal channel network, a broad bay flat, and a relatively wide contiguous low-gradient tidal-terrestrial transition zone.
• Since the late 19th century, a combination of land reclamation and the inland migration of the shoreline has resulted in a 55% decrease in tidal marsh area, a 67% decrease in total tidal channel length, a 40% reduction in channel flat area, a 20% increase in bay flat area, and a 95% decrease in tidal-terrestrial transition zone length.
• Land reclamation has also resulted in the creation of new features that did not exist in the area historically including tidal lagoons, non-tidal open water features, and non-tidal wetlands.
 

Recommendations
The findings from this study provide insight into the drivers for and magnitude of habitat change within the San Francisquito Creek Baylands, and can therefore help inform climate-resilient approaches for regaining some of the lost landscape features and ecological functions. Specific management recommendations developed from the study findings are as follows:
• The dramatic decrease in tidal marsh area and associated tidal channel length since the mid-1800s make tidal marsh restoration a high priority. To make restored areas sustainable over the long-term, restoration should include reestablishing regular tidal inundation as well as reestablishing a connection with San Francisquito Creek and the delivery of freshwater and fine sediment. Restoration efforts should focus on large contiguous areas with minimal infrastructure and should ideally be done sometime over the next decade to ensure the restored areas will have a chance of surviving the sharp increase in the rate of sea level rise that is predicted to occur around 2030 (Goals Update 2015).
• Similarly, the dramatic decrease in the tidal-terrestrial transition zone makes it a high priority for any restoration vision for this area. The transition zone provides distinct ecological services and marsh migration space, and is in need of restoration throughout the South Bay. Since most of the upland land along the historical tidal-terrestrial transition zone is currently developed, near-term restoration efforts should focus on creating transition zone habitats on the bayside of flood risk management levees (Goals Update 2015).
• The landscape metrics used in this study (tidal habitat area, tidal channel length, and tidal-terrestrial interface length) can be used to help design resilient landscape restoration and adaptation strategies around the mouth of San Francisquito Creek. Specifically, the metrics can be used to assess the long-term ecological benefit associated with various processes-based restoration approaches (i.e., approaches that create habitat features and establish physical processes required for habitat resilience). Additional useful landscape metrics are being developed as part of the Resilient Silicon Valley project (see Robinson et al. 2015).

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Collins, J. N. 2002. San Francisco Estuary Wetalnds Regional Monitoring Program Plan: Version 1, Framework and Protocols. SFEI Contribution No. 248. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA. p 94.
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Ellisor, D.; Buzby, N.; Weaver, M.; Foley, M.; Pugh, R. 2021. The San Francisco Estuary Institute Collection at the NIST Biorepository. NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 8370. SFEI Contribution No. 1039. National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been collaborating with the San Francisco Bay Estuary Institute (SFEI) since 2009, providing biobanking services at the NIST Biorepository in Charleston, South Carolina in support of their ongoing water quality monitoring program, the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Bay (RMP). Specimens (bivalve tissue, bird egg contents, fish tissue and sediment) are collected and processed by SFEI-partnering institutions according to their established protocols and shipped to the NIST Biorepository for archival. This report outlines NIST's role in the project, describes collection and processing protocols developed by SFEI and their collaborators, details shipping and archival procedures employed by biorepository staff and provides an inventory of the collection maintained by NIST from 2009 to 2020.

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Cohen, A. N. 1997. The San Francisco Estuary: A model system for invasions research. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Seattle, WA (abstract).
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Zi, T.; Braud, A.; McKee, L. J.; Foley, M. 2022. San Francisco Bay Watershed Dynamic Model (WDM) Progress Report, Phase 2. SFEI Contribution No. 1091. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, California.

The San Francisco Bay total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) call for a 50% reduction in mercury (Hg) loads by 2028 and a 90% reduction in PCBs loads by 2030. In support of these TMDLs, the Municipal Regional Permit for Stormwater (MRP) (SFBRWQCB, 2009, SFBRWQCB, 2015, SFBRWQCB, 2022) called for the implementation of control measures to reduce PCBs and Hg loads from urbanized tributaries. In addition, the MRP has identified additional information needs associated with improving understanding of sources, pathways, loads, trends, and management opportunities of pollutants of concern (POCs). In response to the MRP requirements and information needs, the Small Tributary Loading Strategy (STLS) was developed, which outlined a set of management questions (MQs) that have been used as the
guiding principles for the region’s stormwater-related activities. In recognition of the need to evaluate changes in loads or concentrations of POCs from small tributaries on a decadal scale, the updated 2018 STLS Trends Strategy (Wu et al., 2018) prioritized the development of a new dynamic regional watershed model for POCs (PCBs and Hg focused) loads and trends. This regional modeling effort will provide updated estimates of POC concentrations and loads for all local watersheds that drain to the Bay. The Watershed Dynamic Model (WDM) will also provide
a mechanism for evaluating the impact of management actions on future trends of POC loads or concentrations.

As a multi-use modeling platform, the WDM is being developed to include other pollutants, such as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), sediment, and nutrients and to be coupled with a Bay fate model to form an integrated watershed-Bay modeling framework to address Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) management questions. As this model is developed, flexibility to link with other models will be an important consideration.

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Ackerman, J.; Hartman, A.; Herzog, M. P.; Toney, M. 2016. San Francisco Bay Triennial Bird Egg Monitoring Program for Contaminants - 2016 Data Summary. U.S. Geological Survey: Dixon, CA. p 19 pp.

As part of the Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) and the USGS’s long-term Wildlife Contaminants Program, the USGS samples double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs throughout the San Francisco Bay Estuary approximately every three years to assess temporal trends in contaminant concentrations. This sampling has been carried out in 2006, 2009, and 2012. Although RMP sampling was scheduled to take place in 2015, it was delayed until 2016. This document summarizes egg collections for 2016, as well as mercury concentrations in Forster’s tern eggs on an individual egg basis.

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Beagle, J.; Lowe, J.; McKnight, K.; Safran, S. M.; Tam, L.; Szambelan, S. Jo. 2019. San Francisco Bay Shoreline Adaptation Atlas: Working with Nature to Plan for Sea Level Rise Using Operational Landscape Units. SFEI Contribution No. 915. SFEI & SPUR: Richmond, CA. p 255.

As the climate continues to change, San Francisco Bay shoreline communities will need to adapt in order to build social and ecological resilience to rising sea levels. Given the complex and varied nature of the Bay shore, a science-based framework is essential to identify effective adaptation strategies that are appropriate for their particular settings and that take advantage of natural processes. This report proposes such a framework—Operational Landscape Units for San Francisco Bay.

Printed copies available for purchase from Amazon.

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Doehring, C.; Beagle, J.; Lowe, J.; Grossinger, R. M.; Salomon, M.; Kauhanen, P.; Nakata, S.; Askevold, R. A.; Bezalel, S. N. 2016. San Francisco Bay Shore Inventory: Mapping for Sea Level Rise Planning. SFEI Contribution No. 779. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

With rising sea levels and the increased likelihood of extreme weather events, it is important for regional agencies and local municipalities in the San Francisco Bay Area to have a clear understanding of the status, composition, condition, and elevation of our current Bay shore, including both natural features and built infrastructure.


The purpose of this Bay shore inventory is to create a comprehensive and consistent picture of today’s Bay shore features to inform regional planning. This dataset includes both structures engineered expressly for flood risk management (such as accredited levees) and features that affect flooding at the shore but are not designed or maintained for this purpose (such as berms, road embankments, and marshes). This mapping covers as much of the ‘real world’ influence on flooding and flood routing as possible, including the large number of non-accredited structures.
This information is needed to:

  1. identify areas vulnerable to flooding.
  2. identify adaptation constraints due to present Bay shore alignments; and
  3. suggest opportunities where beaches, wetlands, and floodplains can be maintained or restored and integrated into flood risk management strategies.

The primary focus of the project is therefore to inform regional planners and managers of Bay shore characteristics and vulnerabilities. The mapping presented here is neither to inform FEMA flood designation nor is it a replacement for site-specific analysis and design.


The mapping consists of two main elements:

  1. Mapping of Bay shore features (levees, berms, roads, railroads, embankments, etc.) which could affect flooding and flood routing.
  2. Attributing Bay shore features with additional information including elevations, armoring, ownership (when known), among others.

SFEI delineated and characterized the Bay shore inland to 3 meters (10ft) above mean higher high water (MHHW) to accommodate observed extreme water levels and the commonly used range of future sea level rise (SLR) scenarios. Elevated Bay shore features were mapped and classified as engineered levees, berms, embankments, transportation structures, wetlands, natural shoreline, channel openings, or water control structures. Mapped features were also attributed with elevation (vertical accuracy of <5cm reported in 30 meter (100ft) segments from LiDAR derived digital elevation models (DEMs), FEMA accreditation status, fortification (e.g., riprap, buttressing), frontage (e.g., whether a feature was fronted by a wetland or beach), ownership, and entity responsible for maintenance. Water control structures, ownership, and maintenance attributes were captured where data was available (not complete for entire dataset). The dataset was extensively reviewed and corrected by city, county, and natural resource agency staff in each county around the Bay. This report provides further description of the Bay shore inventory and methods used for developing the dataset. The result is a publicly accessible GIS spatial database.

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McKee, L.; Peterson, D.; Braud, A.; Foley, M.; Dusterhoff, S.; Lowe, J.; King, A.; Davis, J. 2023. San Francisco Bay Sediment Modeling and Monitoring Workplan. SFEI Contribution No. 1100. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This document was prepared with guidance gained through two RMP Sediment Workgroup workshops held in late 2022 and early 2023. Given the variety of participants involved, this Workplan encompasses interests beyond San Francisco Bay RMP funders. We thank the attendees for their contributions. 

In 2020, the Sediment Workgroup (SedWG) of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in San Francisco Bay (RMP) completed a Sediment Monitoring and Modeling Strategy (SMMS) which laid out a conceptual level series of data and information gaps and generally recommended the use of both empirical data collection and modeling tools to answer initial high priority management questions (McKee et al., 2020). At the time, the SMMS promoted the use of surrogates such as time-continuous turbidity measurements for cross-section flux modeling within the Bay without an understanding of existing Bay hydrodynamic models, their strengths, weaknesses, and potential uses for understanding coupled Bay-mudflat-marsh processes. Since then, the Wetland Regional Monitoring Program (WRMP, www.wrmp.org) has generally promoted the use of coupling monitoring and modeling techniques to inform wetlands sediment management decisions. In addition, he completion of the Sediment for Survival report (a RMPEPA funded collaboration) and the further development of sediment conceptual models has also advanced the need for a coupled dynamic modeling and monitoring program that has the capacity to explore more complex management questions (Dusterhoff et al., 2021; SFEI, 2023). Such a program will take time to develop, but will be more cost-efficient and adaptable and allow for more timely answers to pressing questions. 

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SFEI; CDHS,. 2001. The San Francisco Bay Seafood Consumption Study Report. SFEI Contribution No. 369. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA.
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Zi, T.; Mckee, L.; Yee, D.; Foley, M. 2021. San Francisco Bay Regional Watershed Modeling Progress Report, Phase 1. SFEI Contribution No. 1038. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Gobas, F.; Wilcockson, F. 2003. San Francisco Bay PCB Food - Web Model. SFEI Contribution No. 90. San Francisco Estuary Institute , Simon Fraser University, EVS Environmental Consultants: Oakland, Ca.
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Senn, D.; Trowbridge, P. 2016. San Francisco Bay Nutrient Management Strategy Observation Program. SFEI Contribution No. 877. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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2021. San Francisco Bay North Bay Margins Sediment Report. Marine Pollution Studies Lab: Moss Landing, California.

This report contains information on the late summer/early fall field sampling efforts conducted
by the Marine Pollution Studies Lab at Moss Landing Marine Labs (MPSL-MLML) in support of
the San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) North Bay (San Pablo and Suisun
Bays) Margins study. The North Bay Margins is the third and final round of a larger San
Francisco Bay study collecting sediment and water in shallow margin areas of the bay. The first
round was conducted in Central Bay in 2015 and second round in South Bay in 2017. The work
was contracted through the San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI) to the San Jose State
University Research Foundation (SJSURF).
This report includes sample collections over a three week period (August 31st through September
16th) in 2020 encompassing two trips. A total of 40 sediment sites were sampled (Appendix A).
Duplicate sediment samples were collected at two sites (SPB039 and SUB25). Detailed sample
counts and protocols can be found in the 2020 RMP Bay Margins Sediment Cruise Plan prepared
by SFEI.

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Box, C.; Cummins, A. 2019. San Francisco Bay Microplastics Project: Science-Supported Solutions and Policy Recommendations. SFEI Contribution No. 955. 5 Gyres: Los Angeles, CA.

Plastics in our waterways and in the ocean, and more specifically microplastics (plastic particles less than 5 mm in size), have gained global attention as a pervasive and preventable threat to marine ecosystem health. The San Francisco Bay Microplastics Project was designed to provide critical data on microplastics in the Bay Area. The project also engaged multiple stakeholders in both science and policy discussions. Finally, the project was designed to generate scientifically supported regional and statewide policy recommendations for solutions to plastic pollution.

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Holleman, R.; Nuss, E.; Senn, D. 2017. San Francisco Bay Interim Model Validation Report. SFEI Contribution No. 850. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Salop, P.; Gunther, A. J.; Bell, D.; Cotsifas, J.; Gold, J.; Ogle, S. R. 2001. San Francisco Bay Episodic Toxicity Report - 2000. SFEI Contribution No. 233. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Gunther, A. J.; Ogle, S. R. 2000. San Francisco Bay Episodic Toxicity Report:1999 Progress Report. SFEI Contribution No. 346. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Yee, D.; Ross, J. 2017. San Francisco Bay California Toxics Rule Priority Pollutant Ambient Water Monitoring Report. SFEI Contribution No. 814. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond.
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NOAA,. 2007. San Francisco Bay, CA: Comprehensive ecosystem evaluation needed to discern causes of chlorophyll a increases. In 2007 National Eutrophication Assessment. 2007 National Eutrophication Assessment. Washington, D.C. pp 113-114.
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Hoenicke, R.; Tsai, P.; Hansen, E.; Lee, K. 2001. San Francisco Bay Atmospheric Deposition Pilot Study Part 2: Trace Metals. SFEI Contribution No. 73. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Hoenicke, R.; Tsai, P. 2001. San Francisco Bay Atmospheric Deposition Pilot Study Part 1: Mercury. SFEI Contribution No. 72. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Brander, S. M.; Renick, V. C.; Foley, M. M.; Steele, C.; Woo, M.; Lusher, A.; Carr, S.; Helm, P.; Box, C.; Cherniak, S.; et al. 2020. Sampling and Quality Assurance and Quality Control: A Guide for Scientists Investigating the Occurrence of Microplastics Across Matrices. Applied Spectroscopy 74 (9) . SFEI Contribution No. 1012.

Plastic pollution is a defining environmental contaminant and is considered to be one of the greatest environmental threats of the Anthropocene, with its presence documented across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The majority of this plastic debris falls into the micro (1 lm–5 mm) or nano (1–1000 nm) size range and comes from primary and secondary sources. Its small size makes it cumbersome to isolate and analyze reproducibly, and its ubiquitous distribution creates numerous challenges when controlling for background contamination across matrices (e.g., sediment, tissue, water, air). Although research on microplastics represents a relatively nascent subfield, burgeoning interest in questions surrounding the fate and effects of these debris items creates a pressing need for harmonized sampling protocols and quality control approaches. For results across laboratories to be reproducible and comparable, it is imperative that guidelines based on vetted protocols be readily available to research groups, many of which are either new to plastics research or, as with any new subfield, have arrived at current approaches through a process of trial-and-error rather than in consultation with the greater scientific community. The goals of this manuscript are to (i) outline the steps necessary to conduct general as
well as matrix-specific quality assurance and quality control based on sample type and associated constraints, (ii) briefly review current findings across matrices, and (iii) provide guidance for the design of sampling regimes. Specific attention is paid to the source of microplastic pollution as well as the pathway by which contamination occurs, with details provided regarding each step in the process from generating appropriate questions to sampling design and collection.

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Hunt, J.; Trowbridge, P.; Yee, D.; Franz, A.; Davis, J. 2016. Sampling and Analysis Plan for 2016 RMP Status and Trends Bird Egg Monitoring. SFEI Contribution No. 827. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA. p 31 pp.
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Whipple, A.; Grossinger, R. M.; Rankin, D.; Stanford, B.; Askevold, R. A. 2012. Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Historical Ecology Investigation: Exploring Pattern and Process. SFEI Contribution No. 672. SFEI: Richmond.

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta has been transformed from the largest wetland system on the Pacific Coast of the United States to highly productive farmland and other uses embodying California’s water struggles. The Delta comprises the upper extent of the San Francisco Estuary and connects two-thirds of California via the watersheds that feed into it. It is central to the larger California landscape and associated ecosystems, which will continue to experience substantial modification in the future due to climate change and continued land and water use changes. Yet this vital ecological and economic link for California and the world has
been altered to the extent that it is no longer able to support needed ecological functions. Approximately 3% of the Delta’s historical tidal wetland extent remains wetland today; the Delta is now crisscrossed with agricultural ditches replacing the over 1,000 miles of branching tidal channels.

Imagining a healthy Delta ecosystem in the future and taking bold, concrete steps toward that future requires an understanding and vision of what a healthy ecosystem looks like. For a place as extensive, unique, and modified as the Delta, valuable knowledge can be acquired through the study of the past, investigating the Delta as it existed just prior to the substantial human modifications of the last 160 years. Though the Delta is irrevocably altered, this does not mean that the past is irrelevant. Underlying geologic and hydrologic processes still influence the landscape, and native species still ply the waters, soar through the air, and move across the land. Significant opportunities are available to strategically reconnect landscape components in ways that support ecosystem resilience to both present and future stressors.

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Cohen, A. N. 2005. Role of the Panama Canal in Introducing Exotic Organisms. In Bridging Divides - Man-made Canals and Species Invasions. Bridging Divides - Man-made Canals and Species Invasions. Kluwer Academic Publishing.