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Collins, J. N.; Schwarzbach, S. E.; Luoma, S. N.; Yee, D.; Davis, J. A. 2000. Mercury and tidal wetland restoration. In Chapter 6 in Brown, L. (ed.). DRAFT CALFED Whitepaper on: Ecological Processes in Tidal Wetlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary and Their Implications for Proposed Restoration Efforts of the Ecosystem Restoration Program.. Chapter 6 in Brown, L. (ed.). DRAFT CALFED Whitepaper on: Ecological Processes in Tidal Wetlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary and Their Implications for Proposed Restoration Efforts of the Ecosystem Restoration Program.
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Slotton, D. G.; Jones, A. B. 1996. Mercury Effects, Sources, and Control Measures. SFEI Contribution No. 20. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Greenfield, B. K.; Jahn, A. 2010. Mercury in San Francisco Bay forage fish. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, Ca.
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Greenfield, B. K.; Ichikawa, G.; Stephenson, M.; Davis, J. A. 2002. Mercury in Sport Fish from the Delta Region (Task 2A). SFEI Contribution No. 252. San Francisco Estuary Institute / CALFED Final Project Report.: Oakland, CA. p 88 pp.
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Flegal, A. R.; Scelfo, G. M.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Ritson, P. I.; Rivera-Duarte, I.; Smith, G. J.; Gordon, M. R. 1996. Metal contamination in San Francisco Bay waters: Historic perturbations, contemporary concentrations, and future considerations. San Francisco Bay: The Ecosystem(J.T. Rollibaugh, ed.)American Association for the Advancement of Science 173-188 . SFEI Contribution No. 12.
Cohen, A. N.; Weinstein, A. 1998. Methods and Data for Analysis of Potential Distribution and Abundance of Zebra Mussels in California. SFEI Contribution No. 225. A report for CALFED and the California Urban Water Agencies. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond CA.
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Jassby, A. D. 1996. Methods for Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Patterns. SFEI Contribution No. 18. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Jabusch, T. W.; Tjeerdema, R. S. 2006. Microbial degradation of penoxsulam in flooded rice field soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, 5962-5967.
Jabusch, T.; Trowbridge, P. 2018. Microbial Water Quality at Minimally Human-Impacted Reference Beaches in Northern California. SFEI Contribution No. 858. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Sutton, R. 2016. Microplastic Contamination in San Francisco Bay - Fact Sheet. 2015, Revised 2016. SFEI Contribution No. 770.
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Sutton, R.; Mason, S. A.; Stanek, S. K.; Willis-Norton, E.; Wren, I. F.; Box, C. 2016. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin 109 . SFEI Contribution No. 769.

Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000 particles/km2, Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff.

Sutton, R.; Sedlak, M. 2017. Microplastic Monitoring and Science Strategy for San Francisco Bay. SFEI Contribution No. 798. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, Calif.
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Mason, S. A.; Garneau, D.; Sutton, R.; Chu, Y.; Ehmann, K.; Barnes, J.; Papazissimos, D.; Rogers, D. L. 2016. Microplastic pollution is widely detected in US municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent. Environmental Pollution 218, 1045-1054.

Municipal wastewater effluent has been proposed as one pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment. Here we present a broad study of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent as a pathway for microplastic pollution to enter receiving waters. A total of 90 samples were analyzed from 17 different facilities across the United States. Averaging all facilities and sampling dates, 0.05 ± 0.024 microparticles were found per liter of effluent. Though a small value on a per liter basis, even minor municipal wastewater treatment facilities process millions of liters of wastewater each day, yielding daily discharges that ranged from ∼50,000 up to nearly 15 million particles. Averaging across the 17 facilities tested, our results indicate that wastewater treatment facilities are releasing over 4 million microparticles per facility per day. Fibers and fragments were found to be the most common type of particle within the effluent; however, some fibers may be derived from non-plastic sources. Considerable inter- and intra-facility variation in discharge concentrations, as well as the relative proportions of particle types, was observed. Statistical analysis suggested facilities serving larger populations discharged more particles. Results did not suggest tertiary filtration treatments were an effective means of reducing discharge. Assuming that fragments and pellets found in the effluent arise from the 'microbeads' found in many cosmetics and personal care products, it is estimated that between 3 and 23 billion (with an average of 13 billion) of these microplastic particles are being released into US waterways every day via municipal wastewater. This estimate can be used to evaluate the contribution of microbeads to microplastic pollution relative to other sources (e.g., plastic litter and debris) and pathways (e.g., stormwater) of discharge.

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Safran, S. M.; Clark, E.; Beller, E. E.; Grossinger, R. M. 2016. Mission Bay Historical Ecology Reconnaissance Study: Data Collection Summary (Technical Report). SFEI Contribution No. 777.

The goals of the Mission Bay Historical Ecology Reconnaissance Study were to collect and compile high-priority historical
data about the Mission Bay landscape, identify sources that could help to develop a deeper understanding of early
ecological conditions, and to identify future possible research directions based on the available data. This technical
memorandum is intended to document the archives consulted during the reconnaissance study, summarize the collected
and compiled data, and to identify potential next steps. A separate technical presentation to project staff and advisors will
summarize the preliminary findings and questions generated from a review of the historical dataset. Ultimately, this
research is intended to support the San Diego Audubon Society’s Mission Bay Wetlands Conceptual Restoration Plan (CRP)
and the ReWild Mission Bay project.

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Cohen, A. N. 2003. On Mitten Crabs and Lung Flukes. In IEP Newsletter. IEP Newsletter. Vol. 16, pp 48-51.
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Cohen, A. N. 1998. Monitoring for Non-indigenous Organisms. SFEI Contribution No. 385. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA.
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Baumgarten, S.; Beller, E. E.; Grossinger, R. M.; Askevold, R. A. 2015. Mt. Wanda Historical Ecology Investigation. SFEI Contribution No. 743. San Francisco Estuary Institute - Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA. p 51.
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Gilbreath, A.; McKee, L.; Shimabuku, I.; Lin, D.; Werbowski, L. M.; Zhu, X.; Grbic, J.; Rochman, C. 2019. Multi-year water quality performance and mass accumulation of PCBs, mercury, methylmercury, copper and microplastics in a bioretention rain garden. Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment 5 (4) . SFEI Contribution No. 872.

A multiyear water quality performance study of a bioretention rain garden located along a major urban transit corridor east of San Francisco Bay was conducted to assess the efficacy of bioretention rain gardens to remove pollutants. Based on data collected in three years between 2012 and 2017, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) were reduced (>90%), whereas total mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), and copper (Cu) were moderately captured (37%, 49%, and 68% concentration reduction, respectively). Anthropogenic microparticles including microplastics were retained by the bioretention rain garden, decreasing in concentration from 1.6 particles/L to 0.16 particles/L. Based on subsampling at 50- and 150-mm intervals in soil cores from two areas of the unit, PCBs, Hg, and MeHg were all present at the highest concentrations in the upper 100 mm in the surface media layers. Based on residential screening concentrations, the surface media layer near the inlet would need to be removed and replaced annually, whereas the rest of the unit would need replacement every 8 years. The results of this study support the use of bioretention in the San Francisco Bay Area as one management option for meeting load reductions required by San Francisco Bay total maximum daily loads, and provide useful data for supporting decisions about media replacement and overall maintenance schedules.

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Davis, J. A.; Richardson, C. J. 1987. Natural and artificial wetland ecosystems - ecological opportunities and limitations. In Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery. K.R., R., Smith, W. H., Eds.. Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery. University of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
SFEI; Safran, S. M. 2014. Natural Flow Hydrodynamic Modeling Technology Support Phase 1 Technical Memorandum.

This technical memorandum summarizes the work to date carried out by the San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI) to generate a bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model (DEM) of the historical Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (representative of early 1800s conditions). The historical DEM described in this document is an interim/draft product completed for Phase I of the Bay-Delta Natural Flow Hydrodynamics and Salinity Transport modeling project. It is expected that the product and methods described here will be refined during a second phase of the project.

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Cohen, A. N. 1989. New Justifications for Traditional Types of Water Projects, University of California: Berkeley, CA.