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Iknayan, K.; Wheeler, M.; Safran, S. M.; Young, J. S.; Spotswood, E. 2021. What makes urban parks good for California quail? Evaluating park suitability, species persistence, and the potential for reintroduction into a large urban national park. Journal of Applied Ecology.

  1. Preserving and restoring wildlife in urban areas benefits both urban ecosystems and the well-being of urban residents. While urban wildlife conservation is a rapidly developing field, the majority of conservation research has been performed in wildland areas. Understanding the applicability of wildland science to urban populations and the relative importance of factors limiting species persistence are of critical importance to identifying prescriptive management strategies for restoring wildlife to urban parks.
  2. We evaluated how habitat fragmentation, habitat quality and mortality threats influence species occupancy and persistence in urban parks. We chose California quail Callipepla californica as a representative species with potential to respond to urban conservation. We used publicly available eBird data to construct occupancy models of quail in urban parks across their native range, and present an application using focal parks interested in exploring quail reintroduction.
  3. Urban parks had a 0.23 ± 0.02 probability of quail occupancy, with greater occupancy in larger parks that were less isolated from potential source populations, had higher shrub cover and had lower impervious cover. Less isolated parks had higher colonization rates, while larger parks had lower extinction rates. These results align with findings across urban ecology showing greater biodiversity in larger and more highly connected habitat patches.
  4. A case study highlighted that interventions to increase effective park size and improve connectivity would be most influential for two highly urban focal parks, while changes to internal land cover would have a relatively small impact. Low joint extinction probability in the parks (0.010 ± 0.013) indicated reintroduced populations could persist for some time.
  5. Synthesis and applications. We show how eBird data can be harnessed to evaluate the responsiveness of wildlife to urban parks of variable size, connectivity and habitat quality, highlighting what management actions are most needed. Using California quail as an example, we found park size, park isolation and presence of coyotes are all important drivers of whether quail can colonize and persist in parks. Our results suggest reintroducing quail to parks could be successful provided parks are large enough to support quail, and management actions are taken to enhance regional connectivity or periodic assisted colonization is used to supplement local populations.
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Iknayan, K.; Heath, S.; Terrill, S. B.; Wenny, D. G.; Panlasigui, S.; Wang, Y.; Beller, E. E.; Spotswood, E. 2024. Patterns in bird and pollinator occupancy and richness in a mosaic of urban office parks across scales and seasons. Ecology and Evolution 14 (3).

Urbanization is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, yet cities can provide resources required by many species throughout the year. In recognition of this, cities around the world are adopting strategies to increase biodiversity. These efforts would benefit from a robust understanding of how natural and enhanced features in urbanized areas influence various taxa. We explored seasonal and spatial patterns in occupancy and taxonomic richness of birds and pollinators among office parks in Santa Clara County, California, USA, where natural features and commercial landscaping have generated variation in conditions across scales. We surveyed birds and insect pollinators, estimated multi-species occupancy and species richness, and found that spatial scale (local, neighborhood, and landscape scale), season, and urban sensitivity were all important for understanding how communities occupied sites. Features at the landscape (distance to streams or baylands) and local scale (tree canopy, shrub, or impervious cover) were the strongest predictors of avian occupancy in all seasons. Pollinator richness was influenced by local tree canopy and impervious cover in spring, and distance to baylands in early and late summer. We then predicted the relative contributions of different spatial scales to annual bird species richness by simulating “good” and “poor” quality sites based on influential covariates returned by the previous models. Shifting from poor to good quality conditions locally increased annual avian richness by up to 6.8 species with no predicted effect on the quality of the neighborhood. Conversely, sites of poor local and neighborhood scale quality in good-quality landscapes were predicted to harbor 11.5 more species than sites of good local- and neighborhood-scale quality in poor-quality landscapes. Finally, more urban-sensitive bird species were gained at good quality sites relative to urban tolerant species, suggesting that urban natural features at the local and landscape scales disproportionately benefited them.

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Aquatic Habitat Institute. 1990. Estuarine Index: A Guide to Bay-Delta Research and Monitoring Programs: Volume I. Association of Bay Area Governments Urban Runoff Studies, Association of Bay Area Governments Environmental Protection Agency. p 395.
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Aquatic Habitat Institute. 1990. Estuarine Data Index: A Guide to Bay-Delta Research and Monitoring Programs, Volume I. SFEI Contribution No. 157. Aquatic Habitat Institute: RIchmond, CA. p 395.
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Jabusch, T.; Trowbridge, P.; Heberger, M.; Orlando, J.; De Parsia, M.; Stillway, M. 2018. Delta Regional Monitoring Program Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2015–16: Pesticides and Toxicity. SFEI Contribution No. 864. Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA.

The primary purpose of this report is to document the first year (FY15/16) of pesticide monitoring by the Delta Regional Monitoring Program (Delta RMP). This document reports the results from samples collected monthly from July 2015 through June 2016. The data described in this report are available for download via the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) website.

Pesticide monitoring of the Delta RMP includes chemical analysis and toxicity testing of surface water samples. The parameters analyzed include 154 current use pesticides, dissolved copper, field parameters, and “conventional” parameters (ancillary parameters measured in the laboratory, such as dissolved/particulate organic carbon and hardness). Toxicity tests included an algal species (Selenastrum capricornutum, also known as Raphidocelis subcapitata), an invertebrate (Ceriodaphnia dubia, a daphnid or water flea), and a fish species (Pimephales promelas, fathead minnow). Toxicity testing included the evaluation of acute (survival) and chronic (growth, reproduction, biomass) toxicity endpoints. The surface water samples were collected from 5 fixed sites representing key inflows to the Delta that were visited monthly: Mokelumne River at New Hope Road, Sacramento River at Hood, San Joaquin River at Buckley Cove, San Joaquin River at Vernalis, and Ulatis Creek at Brown Road.

A total of 52 pesticides were detected above method detection limits (MDLs) in water samples (19 fungicides, 17 herbicides, 9 insecticides, 6 degradates, and 1 synergist). A total of 9 pesticides (5 herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 1 degradate) were detected in suspended sediments in 10 of a total of 60 samples collected during the study period. All collected samples contained mixtures of pesticides ranging from 2 to 26 pesticides per sample. From a total of 154 target parameters, 100 compounds were never detected in any of the samples.

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Jabusch, T. W. 2010. Selenium in the Grasslands Watershed. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA. pp 267-294.
Jabusch, T.; Trowbridge, P.; Heberger, M.; Guerin, M. 2018. Delta Regional Monitoring Program Nutrients Synthesis: Modeling to Assist Identification of Temporal and Spatial Data Gaps for Nutrient Monitoring. SFEI Contribution No. 866. Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA.

Nutrient loads are an important water quality management issue in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) and there is consensus that the current monitoring activities do not collect all the information needed to answer important management questions. The purpose of this report is to use hydrodynamic model outputs to refine recommendations for monitoring nutrients and related conditions in the Delta. Two types of modeling approaches were applied: 1) volumetric water source analysis to evaluate the mix of source waters within each subregion; and 2) particle tracking simulations.The analysis revealed that each Delta subregion has a unique “fingerprint” in terms of how much of its water comes from different sources. Three major recommendations for a future monitoring design were derived from this analysis:

Recommendation #1: The subregions proposed for status and trends monitoring in a previous report should be redrawn to better reflect the mixtures of source waters.

Recommendation #2: Long-term water quality stations are needed in the North Delta, Eastside, and South Delta subregions.

Recommendation #3: Areas with a long-residence time and where mixing of different water sources occurs are potential for nutrient transformation hotspots. High-frequency water quality mapping of these areas has the

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Jabusch, T. W.; Tjeerdema, R. S. 2006. Microbial degradation of penoxsulam in flooded rice field soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, 5962-5967.
Jabusch, T. W.; Tjeerdema, R. S. 2007. Chemistry and Fate of Triazolopyrimidine Sulfonamide Herbicides. Reviews of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology.
Jabusch, T. W.; Tjeerdema, R. S. 2006. Photodegradation of penoxsulam. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, 5958-5961.
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Jabusch, T.; Trowbridge, P.; Wong, A.; Heberger, M. 2018. Assessment of Nutrient Status and Trends in the Delta in 2001–2016: Effects of drought on ambient concentrations and trends. SFEI Contribution No. 865. Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA.

Nutrients and the effects of nutrients on water quality in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a priority focus area for the Delta Regional Monitoring Program (Delta RMP). The Program’s first assessment question regarding nutrients is: “How do concentrations of nutrients (and nutrient-associated parameters) vary spatially and temporally?” In this analysis, we confirmed previously reported declining trends in the San Joaquin River for nutrient concentrations at Vernalis and chlorophyll-a concentrations at Buckley Cove and Disappointment Slough. A slight increasing trend for dissolved oxygen at Buckley Cove was also detected which could be confirmation that management actions for the San Joaquin River Dissolved Control Program are having the desired effect. Finally, at stations in Suisun Bay, the Confluence region, and Franks Tract, chlorophyll-a showed modest increasing trends, which were not evident in previous analyses. The new analyses presented in this report and the findings from earlier reports constitute encouraging early progress toward answering the Delta RMP’s assessment questions. Specifically, due to the existence of long-term data sets and synthesis efforts, spatial and temporal trends in the concentrations of nutrients and nutrient-related parameters are reasonably well understood and so are the magnitudes of the most important sources of nutrients from outside the Delta. However, additional synthesis work could be done to understand the factors behind these trends. Large knowledge gaps remain about nutrient sinks, sources, and processes within the Delta. The mechanistic, water quality-hydrodynamic models being developed for the Delta may be able to address these questions in the future.

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Jabusch, T. W.; Bernstein, B. 2010. Delta Regional Monitoring Program. Aquatic Science Center: Oakland, CA.
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Jabusch, T. W.; Trowbridge, P. 2016. Nutrient Monitoring Planning Workshop - Summary of Existing Nutrient Monitoring Programs, Data Gaps, and Potential Delta RMP “No Regrets” Monitoring Activities. Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA.

This report was prepared as a briefing document for a September 2016 workshop held in Sacramento by the Delta Regional Monitoring Program. The purpose of the workshop was to plan how to invest in nutrients-related studies in order to inform better management of Delta waterways. First, the report compiles information about the major existing nutrient monitoring programs in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Next, it outline options for “no regrets” actions for workshop participants to review. The report summarizes interviews with representatives of Delta monitoring and resource management programs, describes current monitoring efforts in the Delta, and presents the conclusions and recommendations from recently completed data syntheses.

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Jabusch, T.; Trowbridge, P. 2018. Microbial Water Quality at Minimally Human-Impacted Reference Beaches in Northern California. SFEI Contribution No. 858. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Jahn, A. 2018. Gut Contents Analysis of Four Fish Species Collected in the San Leandro Bay RMP PCB Study in August 2016. SFEI Contribution No. 900. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Jarman, W. M.; Bacon, C.; Owen, B. 1999. Trace Organic Sampler Intercalibration Results. SFEI Contribution No. 34. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
Jarman, W. M.; Davis, J. A. 1997. Observations on trace organic concentrations in RMP water samples. SFEI Contribution No. 210. San Francisco Estuary Institute. pp 67-77.
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Jassby, A. D. 1996. Methods for Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Patterns. SFEI Contribution No. 18. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Johnston, D. 2002. Data Collection Protocol Yuma Bat (Myotis yumanensis). SFEI Contribution No. 259. H.T Harvey & Associates: San Jose, CA. p 7.
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Jones, C.; Davis, J.; Yee, D. 2022. Strategy for In-Bay Fate Modeling to Support Contaminant and Sediment Management in San Francisco Bay. SFEI Contribution No. 1090. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, California.

This report presents a strategy and multi-year workplan for modeling polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), and sediment in San Francisco Bay (the Bay). Robust in-Bay fate modeling is needed to address priority management questions that have been identified for these constituents.

The strategy for in-Bay modeling presented in this report is a major element of a broader, integrated strategy that is being developed across RMP Workgroups for modeling contaminants flowing from the Bay watersheds and other pathways into the Bay. The broader project is expected to yield an integrated strategy in 2022, followed by implementation of a pilot effort in 2023. Coordination of the in-Bay modeling effort with the broader integrated strategy and other modeling work (e.g., nutrient modeling under the Nutrient Management Strategy) will be critical to optimizing use of the funds allocated to modeling.

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Kauhanen, P.; Wu, J.; Hunt, J.; McKee, L. 2018. Green Plan-IT Application Report for the East Bay Corridors Initiative. SFEI Contribution No. 887. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Kauhanen, P.; Lowe, S. 2021. Remote Sensing Recommendations for Tidal Wetland Indicators. SFEI Contribution No. 1047. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond. CA. p 31.

This document presents potential products and methods for monitoring a suite of tidal wetland habitat indicators designated for the Montezuma Wetlands Project using remote sensing technology. This document can also serve as a starting place for the Technical Advisory Committee of the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program (WRMP) to develop a set of regional protocols for monitoring the same or similar habitat indicators.

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Kerrigan, J. F.; Engstrom, D. R.; Yee, D.; Sueper, C.; Erickson, P. R.; Grandbois, M.; McNeill, K.; Arnold, W. A. 2015. Quantification of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-BDEs), Triclosan, and Related Compounds in Freshwater and Coastal Systems. PLOS ONE . SFEI Contribution No. 765.

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are a new class of contaminants of emerging concern, but the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic sources remain uncertain. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as brominated flame retardants, and they are a potential source of OH-BDEs via oxidative transformations. OH-BDEs are also natural products in marine systems. In this study, OH-BDEs were measured in water and sediment of freshwater and coastal systems along with the anthropogenic wastewater-marker compound triclosan and its photoproduct dioxin, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The 6-OH-BDE 47 congener and its brominated dioxin (1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin) photoproduct were the only OH-BDE and brominated dioxin detected in surface sediments from San Francisco Bay, the anthropogenically impacted coastal site, where levels increased along a north-south gradient. Triclosan, 6-OH-BDE 47, 6-OH-BDE 90, 6-OH-BDE 99, and (only once) 6’-OH-BDE 100 were detected in two sediment cores from San Francisco Bay. The occurrence of 6-OH-BDE 47 and 1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin sediments in Point Reyes National Seashore, a marine system with limited anthropogenic impact, was generally lower than in San Francisco Bay surface sediments. OH-BDEs were not detected in freshwater lakes. The spatial and temporal trends of triclosan, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, OH-BDEs, and brominated dioxins observed in this study suggest that the dominant source of OH-BDEs in these systems is likely natural production, but their occurrence may be enhanced in San Francisco Bay by anthropogenic activities.

King, A. 2019. Wind Over San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta: Forcing for Hydrodynamic Models. SFEI Contribution No. 937. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Klasios, N.; De Frond, H.; Miller, E.; Sedlak, M.; Rochman, C. M. 2021. Microplastics and other anthropogenic particles are prevalent in mussels from San Francisco Bay, and show no correlation with PAHs. Environmental Pollution 271.

Microplastics are an emerging contaminant of high environmental concern due to their widespread distribution and availability to aquatic organisms. Filter-feeding organisms like bivalves have been identified as particularly susceptible to microplastics, and because of this, it has been suggested bivalves could be useful bioindicators of microplastic pollution in ecosystems. We sampled resident mussels and clams from five sites within San Francisco Bay for microplastics and other anthropogenic microparticles. Cages of depurated mussels (denoted transplants) were also deployed at four sites in the Bay for 90 days to investigate temporal uptake of microplastics and microparticles. Because microplastics can sorb PAHs, and thus may act as a source of these chemicals upon ingestion, transplant mussels and resident clams were also analyzed for PAHs. We found anthropogenic microparticles in all samples at all sites, some of which were identified as microplastics. There was no statistical difference between the mean number of microparticles found in resident and transplant species. There were significant site-specific differences among microparticle abundances in the Bay, with the highest abundances observed in the South Bay. No correlation was found between the number of microparticles and the sum concentrations of PAHs, priority PAHs, or any individual PAH, suggesting the chemical concentrations observed reflect broader chemical trends in the Bay rather than direct exposure through microplastic ingestion. The pattern of spatial distribution of microparticles in transplanted mussels matched that of sediment samples from the Bay, suggesting bivalves could be a useful bioindicator of microplastic abundances in sediment, but not surface water.

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Kleckner, A.; Davis, J. 2024. Multi Year Plan 2024. SFEI Contribution No. 1167. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

The purpose of this document is to guide efforts and summarize plans developed within the RMP. The intended audience includes representatives of the many organizations who directly participate in the Program. This document will also be useful for individuals who are not directly involved with the RMP but are interested in an overview of the Program and where it is heading.

The organization of this Multi-Year Plan parallels the RMP planning process (Figure 2). Section 1 presents the long-term management plans of the agencies responsible for managing water quality in the Bay and the overarching management questions that guide the Program. The agencies’ long-term management plans provide the foundation for RMP planning (Figure 2). In order to turn the plans into effective actions, the RMP distills prioritized lists of management questions that need to be answered (Page 8). The prioritized management questions then serve as a roadmap for scientists on the Technical Review Committee, workgroups, and strategy teams to plan and implement scientific studies to address the most urgent information needs. This information sharpens the focus on management actions that will most effectively and efficiently

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Kleckner, A.; Sutton, R.; Yee, D.; Wong, A.; Davis, J.; Salop, P. 2023. 2023 RMP Dry Season Water Cruise Plan. SFEI Contribution No. 1139. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This report details plans associated with the 2023 Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) water cruise. The RMP water sampling program was redesigned in 2002 to adopt a randomized sampling design at thirty-one stations in place of the twenty-six base program stations sampled previously. In 2007, the number of stations was decreased to twenty-two stations, and it remains as such for 2023. The analytes for 2023 are based on the Status and Trends (S&T) Review process that started in 2020.

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Kleckner, A.; Davis, J. 2023. 2024 Detailed Workplan and Budget.

In 2024, the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in San Francisco Bay (RMP) is entering its 32nd year of collecting data and communicating information to support water quality management decisions. This Detailed Workplan and Budget describes the activities that will be completed in 2024, the proposed funding levels, and the deliverables for each task. 


The planned revenue from RMP fees for 2024 is $4,156k, with additional supplemental fees of $339k from municipal wastewater and $100k from municipal stormwater bringing the total revenue to $4,596k. The expected revenue is $5,216k as shown in Table 1 and Figures 1-2, which is reduced by $200k to account for the lower volume of dredged sediment being disposed of in the Bay, per the Long-Term Management Strategy (LTMS) plan. The $200k figure is a placeholder and the dredger contribution will be updated when we receive the final in-Bay dredge disposal volumes for calendar year 2023 (typically in March of the following year). The majority of the expenses in 2024 (71%) will be for Status and Trends monitoring and special studies (Tasks 6-7). The cost for running the RMP (Tasks 1-5) is $115k higher in 2024 than 2023 and funding allocations have been shifted slightly within each subtask.

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Kleckner, A.; Sutton, R.; Yee, D.; Wong, A.; Davis, J.; Salop, P. 2023. 2023 RMP Sediment Cruise Sampling and Analysis Plan. SFEI Contribution No. 1138. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This report details plans associated with the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) deep bay sediment cruise. The RMP, through the Status and Trends monitoring program, conducts routine monitoring of water, sediment and biological tissue. Deep bay stations (water depth lower than 1 foot below MLLW) have been sampled for the Status and Trends sediment program since its inception.  The current monitoring design (reflective of changes made to the Program through the Status and Trends Review process) calls for sampling frequency of deep bay sediment for CECs, PBDEs, and ancillary analytes every five years during the dry season. Every ten years, metals, PAHs, and PCBs will also be sampled. For 2023, sampling operations will entail dry season sample collection at 16 RMP sediment sampling stations for CECs, PBDEs, and ancillary analytes in Central Bay, South Bay, and Lower South Bay.

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Kleckner, A.; Sutton, R.; Yee, D.; Gilbreath, A.; Trinh, M. 2023. Water Year 2023 RMP Near-Field Water Sampling and Analysis Plan. SFEI Contribution No. 1142. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This report details plans associated with the pilot near-field water sampling for the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in San Francisco Bay (RMP). The RMP recently reviewed the Status & Trends (S&T) Program and added a pilot effort to quantify contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Bay water in areas near (“near-field” of) expected loading pathways during or shortly after storm events and during the dry season. For the first year of the pilot (Water Year 2022), the near-field design included three targeted, near-field stations and four ambient Bay stations. Subsequent years added a fourth near-field station. Samples will be collected at these stations during or shortly after two storm events, and once in the dry season. The analytes that are being measured include bisphenols, organophosphate esters (OPEs), PFAS, and a suite of stormwater CECs.

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Kramer, K. S. 1989. Inventory of Monitoring Programs in the San Francisco Bay and Delta. SFEI Contribution No. 156. AHI: Richmond, CA. p 48.
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Kramer, K. S. 1989. Inventory of Current Monitoring Programs in the San Francisco Bay and Delta. SFEI Contribution No. 155. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA. p 39.
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Kucera, T.; Breauz, A.; Zielinski, W. 2002. Data Collection Protocol Montioring River Otter (Lutra [=Lontra] canadensis). SFEI Contribution No. 241. CA State University Stanislaus, U.S Forest Service, San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board: Oakland, CAStanislaus, CA. p 11.
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