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Sun, J. 2018. Non-Targeted Analysis of Water-Soluble Compounds Highlights Overlooked Contaminants and Pathways (Coming Soon). SFEI Contribution No. 905. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Robinson, A.; Slotton, D. G.; Lowe, S.; Davis, J. A. 2014. North Bay Mercury Biosentinel Project (December 2014 Report). SFEI Contribution No. 738. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Grieb, T.; Roy, S.; Rath, J.; Stewart, R.; Sun, J.; Davis, J. A. 2018. North Bay Selenium Monitoring Design. SFEI Contribution No. 921. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Beller, E. E.; Baumgarten, S.; Grossinger, R. M.; Longcore, T.; Stein, E. D.; Dark, S.; Dusterhoff, S. D. 2014. Northern San Diego County Lagoons Historical Ecology Investigation. SFEI Contribution No. 722. San Francisco Estuary Institute - Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA. p 215.
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Salomon, M.; Baumgarten, S.; Dusterhoff, S. D.; Beller, E. E.; Askevold, R. A. 2015. Novato Creek Baylands Historical Ecology Study. SFEI Contribution No. 740. San Francisco Estuary Institute - Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA.

Project Background

Over the past century and a half, lower Novato Creek and the surrounding tidal wetlands have been heavily modified for flood control and land reclamation purposes. Levees were built in the tidal portion of the mainstem channel beginning in the late 1800s to convey flood flows out to San Pablo Bay more rapidly and to remove surrounding areas from inundation. Following levee construction, the wetlands surrounding the channel were drained and converted to agricultural, residential, and industrial areas. These changes have resulted in a considerable loss of wetland habitat, reduced sediment transport to marshes and the Bay, and an overall decreased resilience of the system to sea level rise.
In addition to tidal wetland modification, land use changes upstream in the Novato Creek watershed have resulted in several challenges for flood control management. Dam construction and increased runoff in the upper watershed have resulted in elevated rates of channel incision, which have increased transport of fine sediment from the upper watershed to lower Novato Creek. Channelization of tributaries and construction of irrigation ditches have likely increased drainage density in the upper watershed, also potentially contributing to increased rates of channel incision and fine sediment production (Collins 1998). Downstream, sediment transport capacity has been reduced by construction of a railroad crossing and loss of tidal prism and channel capacity associated with the diking of the surrounding marsh. As a result of the increased fine sediment supply from the watershed and the loss of sediment transport capacity in lower Novato Creek, sediment aggradation occurs within the channel, which in turn reduces the flood capacity of the channel, necessitating periodic dredging.

Currently, the Marin County Department of Public Works (MCDPW) is coordinating the Novato Watershed Program, which includes Marin County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, Novato Sanitary District, and North Marin Water District. Within lower Novato Creek, the Program is seeking to implement a new approach to flood control that includes redirecting sediment for beneficial use, reducing flood channel maintenance costs, restoring wetland habitat, and enhancing resilience to sea level rise. Included as part of this goal is the re-establishment of historical physical processes that existed before major channel modification, which in turn will re-establish historical ecological functions and help to create a tidal landscape that is resilient to increasing sea level.

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Grossinger, R. M.; Dusterhoff, S. D.; Doehring, C.; Salomon, M.; Askevold, R. A. 2015. Novato Creek Baylands Vision: Integrating ecological functions and flood protection within a climate-resilient landscape. SFEI Contribution No. 764.

This report explores the potential for integrating ecological functions into flood risk management on lower Novato Creek. It presents an initial vision of how ecological elements could contribute to flood protection, based on a broad scale analysis and a one day workshop of local and regional experts. The Vision is not intended to be implemented as is, but rather adapted and applied through future projects and analysis. Other actions (e.g., floodwater detention basins) may also need to be implemented in the interim to meet flood risk objectives.

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Senn, D.; Novick, E. 2016. Nutrient Management Strategy Science Plan Report. SFEI Contribution No. 878. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Holleman, R.; MacVean, L.; Mckibben, M.; Sylvester, Z.; Wren, I.; Senn, D. 2017. Nutrient Management Strategy Science Program. SFEI Contribution No. 879. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Jabusch, T. W.; Trowbridge, P. 2016. Nutrient Monitoring Planning Workshop - Summary of Existing Nutrient Monitoring Programs, Data Gaps, and Potential Delta RMP “No Regrets” Monitoring Activities. Aquatic Science Center: Richmond, CA.

This report was prepared as a briefing document for a September 2016 workshop held in Sacramento by the Delta Regional Monitoring Program. The purpose of the workshop was to plan how to invest in nutrients-related studies in order to inform better management of Delta waterways. First, the report compiles information about the major existing nutrient monitoring programs in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Next, it outline options for “no regrets” actions for workshop participants to review. The report summarizes interviews with representatives of Delta monitoring and resource management programs, describes current monitoring efforts in the Delta, and presents the conclusions and recommendations from recently completed data syntheses.

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Grossinger, R. M.; Beller, E. E. 2011. Oak Landscapes in the Recent Past. In Oaks in the Urban Landscape: Selection, Care, and Preservation. Costello, L. R., Hagen, B. W., Jones, K. S., Eds.. Oaks in the Urban Landscape: Selection, Care, and Preservation. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources: Richmond, CA.
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Jarman, W. M.; Davis, J. A. 1997. Observations on trace organic concentrations in RMP water samples. SFEI Contribution No. 210. San Francisco Estuary Institute. pp 67-77.
Sutton, R.; Xie, Y.; Moran, K. D.; Teerlink, J. 2019. Occurrence and Sources of Pesticides to Urban Wastewater and the Environment. In Pesticides in Surface Water: Monitoring, Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Management. Pesticides in Surface Water: Monitoring, Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Management. American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. pp 63-88.

Municipal wastewater has not been extensively examined as a pathway by which pesticides contaminate surface water, particularly relative to the well-recognized pathways of agricultural and urban runoff. A state-of-the-science review of the occurrence and fate of current-use pesticides in wastewater, both before and after treatment, indicates this pathway is significant and should not be overlooked. A comprehensive conceptual model is presented to establish all relevant pesticide-use patterns with the potential for both direct and indirect down-the-drain transport. Review of available studies from the United States indicates 42 pesticides in current use. While pesticides and pesticide degradates have been identified in wastewater, many more have never been examined in this matrix. Conventional wastewater treatment technologies are generally ineffective at removing pesticides from wastewater, with high removal efficiency only observed in the case of highly hydrophobic compounds, such as pyrethroids. Aquatic life reference values can be exceeded in undiluted effluents. For example, seven compounds, including three pyrethroids, carbaryl, fipronil and its sulfone degradate, and imidacloprid, were detected in treated wastewater effluent at levels exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) aquatic life benchmarks for chronic exposure to invertebrates. Pesticides passing through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) merit prioritization for additional study to identify sources and appropriate pollution-prevention strategies. Two case studies, diazinon and chlorpyrifos in household pesticide products, and fipronil and imidacloprid in pet flea control products, highlight the importance of identifying neglected sources of environmental contamination via the wastewater pathway. Additional monitoring and modeling studies are needed to inform source control and prevention of undesirable alternative solutions.

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Grosso, C.; Hale, A.; Williams, M.; May, M. 2014. Online 401: From Pilot to Production. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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Wu, J.; Kauhanen, P.; Hunt, J. A.; Senn, D.; Hale, T.; McKee, L. J. . 2019. Optimal Selection and Placement of Green Infrastructure in Urban Watersheds for PCB Control. Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment 5 (2) . SFEI Contribution No. 729.

San Francisco Bay and its watersheds are polluted by legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), resulting in the establishment of a total maximum daily load (TDML) that requires a 90% PCB load reduction from municipal stormwater. Green infrastructure (GI) is a multibenefit solution for stormwater management, potentially addressing the TMDL objectives, but planning and implementing GI cost-effectively to achieve management goals remains a challenge and requires an integrated watershed approach. This study used the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) coupled with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to find near-optimal combinations of GIs that maximize PCB load reduction and minimize total relative cost at a watershed scale. The selection and placement of three locally favored GI types (bioretention, infiltration trench, and permeable pavement) were analyzed based on their cost and effectiveness. The results show that between optimal solutions and nonoptimal solutions, the effectiveness in load reduction could vary as much as 30% and the difference in total relative cost could be well over $100 million. Sensitivity analysis of both GI costs and sizing criteria suggest that the assumptions made regarding these parameters greatly influenced the optimal solutions. 

If you register for access to the journal, then you may download the article for free through July 31, 2019.

DOI: 10.1061/JSWBAY.0000876

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Cohen, A. N. 2005. Order Tanaidacea. In The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the California and Oregon Coasts. Carlton, J. T., Ed.. The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the California and Oregon Coasts. University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.
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Bruland, K. W.; Miller, L. A. 1995. Organic speciation of silver in marine waters. Environmental Science and Technology 29, 2616-2621 . SFEI Contribution No. 186.
Oros, D. R.; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Mazurek, M. A.; Baham, J. E. 2002. Organic Tracers from Wild Fire Residues in Soils and Rain/River Wash-Out. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 137, p.203-233 . SFEI Contribution No. 479.
Oram, J. J.; Greenfield, B. K.; Davis, J. A.; David, N.; Leatherbarrow, J. E. 2006. Organochlorine Pesticide Fate in San Francisco Bay. SFEI Contribution No. 433. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA. p 48.
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Cohen, A. N. 2005. Overview of 2004/05 Rapid Assessment Shore and Channel Surveys for Exotic Species in San Francisco Bay. SFEI Contribution No. 452. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA.
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Cohen, A. N.; Zabin, C. J. 2009. Oyster shells as vectors for exotic species. Journal of Shellfish Research 28 (1), 163-167 . SFEI Contribution No. 709.
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Greenfield, B. K.; Davis, J. A. 2004. A PAH Fate Model for San Francisco Bay. Chemosphere . SFEI Contribution No. 114.
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Cohen, A. N. 2006. The Panama Canal: Cutting a canal through Central America. In Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridor. Cohen, A. N., Gollasch, S., Galil, B. S., Eds.. Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridor. Kluwer Academic Publishing: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Cohen, A. N. 2006. The Panama Canal: Species Introductions and the Panama Canal. In Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors. Cohen, A. N., Gollasch, S., Galil, B. S., Eds.. Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors. Kluwer Academic Publishing: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Flegal, A. R.; Abu-Saba, K. E. 1997. Particulate sources and sinks of dissolved chromium in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Environmental Science and Technology . SFEI Contribution No. 25.
Sadaria, A. M.; Sutton, R.; Moran, K. D.; Teerlink, J.; Brown, J. V.; Halden, R. U. 2017. Passage of fiproles and imidacloprid from urban pest control uses through wastewater treatment plants in northern California. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36, 1473-1482 . SFEI Contribution No. 783.

Urban pest control insecticides, specifically fipronil and its four major degradates (fipronil sulfone, sulfide, desulfinyl, and amide) and imidacloprid, were monitored during drought conditions in eight San Francisco Bay wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In influent and effluent, ubiquitous detections were obtained in units of ng/L for fipronil (13-88), fipronil sulfone (1-28), fipronil sulfide (1-5) and imidacloprid (58-306). In influent, 100% of imidacloprid and 62 ± 9% of total fiproles (fipronil and degradates) were present in the dissolved state, with the balance being bound to filter-removable particulates. Targeted insecticides persisted during wastewater treatment, regardless of treatment technology utilized (imidacloprid: 93 ± 17%; total fiproles: 65 ± 11%), with partitioning into sludge (3.7-151.1 μg/kg dry weight as fipronil) accounting for minor losses of total fiproles entering WWTPs. The load of total fiproles was fairly consistent across the facilities but fiprole speciation varied. This first regional study on fiprole and imidacloprid occurrences in raw and treated California sewage revealed ubiquity and marked persistence to conventional treatment of both phenylpyrazole and neonicotinoid compounds. Flea and tick control agents for pets are identified as potential sources of pesticides in sewage meriting further investigation and inclusion in chemical-specific risk assessments. 

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Davis, J. A. 2002. A PCB Budget for San Francisco Bay. SFEI Contribution No. 376. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Oakland, CA.
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Leatherbarrow, J. E.; Yee, D.; Davis, J. A. 2001. PCBs in effluent. SFEI Contribution No. 237.
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Oros, D. R. 2005. Pelagic Organism Decline. SFEI Contribution No. 511.
Sedlak, M.; Sutton, R.; Wong, A.; Lin, D. 2018. Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in San Francisco Bay: Synthesis and Strategy. SFEI Contribution No. 867. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Sedlak, M.; Greig, D. 2012. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in wildlife from an urban estuary. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14, 146-154.
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Baumgarten, S.; Clark, E.; Dusterhoff, S.; Grossinger, R. M.; Askevold, R. A. 2018. Petaluma Valley Historical Hydrology and Ecology Study. SFEI Contribution No. 861. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This study reconstructs the historical landscape of the Petaluma River watershed and documents the major landscape changes that have taken place within the watershed over the past two centuries. Prior to Spanish and American settlement of the region, the Petaluma River watershed supported a dynamic and interconnected network of streams, riparian forests, freshwater wetlands, and tidal marshes. These habitats were utilized by a wide range of plant and animal species, including a number of species that are today listed as threatened or endangered such as Ridgway’s Rail, Black Rail, salt marsh harvest mouse, California red-legged frog, Central California Coast steelhead, and soft bird’s beak (CNDDB 2012, SRCD 2015). Agricultural and urban development beginning in the mid-1800s has significantly altered the landscape, degrading habitat for fish and wildlife and contributing to contemporary management challenges such as flooding, pollutant loading, erosion, and sedimentation. While many natural areas and remnant wetlands still exist throughout the watershed—most notably the Petaluma Marsh—their ecological function is in many cases seriously impaired and their long-term fate jeopardized by climate change and other stressors. Multi-benefit wetland restoration strategies, guided by a thorough understanding of landscape history, can simultaneously address a range of chronic management issues while improving the ecological health of the watershed, making it a better place to live for both people and wildlife.

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David, N.; Shonkoff, S. B.; Hayworth, J. 2004. Phase 2 (2003) Bioassessment of Waterbodies Treated with Aquatic Pesticides. SFEI Contribution No. 117. San Francisco Estuary Insitute: Oakland, CA.
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Jabusch, T. W.; Tjeerdema, R. S. 2006. Photodegradation of penoxsulam. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, 5958-5961.
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Flegal, A. R.; Bruland, K. W.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Kozelka, P. B. 1997. Physicochemical speciation of lead in South San Francisco Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44, 649-658 . SFEI Contribution No. 26.
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McKee, L. J. .; Pearce, S.; Shonkoff, S. 2006. Pinole Creek Sediment Source Assessment: Pavon Creeks Sub-basin. SFEI Contribution No. 515. San Francisco Estuary Institute. p 67.
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