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Filters: Author is Jennifer Sun  [Clear All Filters]
2017
Trowbridge, P.; Sun, J.; Franz, A.; Yee, D. 2017. 2017 Margins Sediment Cruise Plan. SFEI Contribution No. 847. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Lin, D.; Sun, J.; Yee, D.; Franz, A.; Trowbridge, P.; Salop, P. 2017. 2017 RMP Water Cruise Plan. SFEI Contribution No. 845. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Sun, J.; Pearce, S.; Trowbridge, P. 2017. RMP Field Sampling Report 2016. SFEI Contribution No. 826. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
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2018
Shimabuku, I.; Trowbridge, P.; Sun, J. 2018. Bay 2017 Bay RMP Field Sampling Report. SFEI Contribution No. 849. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Sun, J. 2018. Non-Targeted Analysis of Water-Soluble Compounds Highlights Overlooked Contaminants and Pathways (Coming Soon). SFEI Contribution No. 905. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.
Grieb, T.; Roy, S.; Rath, J.; Stewart, R.; Sun, J.; Davis, J. A. 2018. North Bay Selenium Monitoring Design. SFEI Contribution No. 921. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Lin, D.; Sutton, R.; Sun, J.; Ross, J. 2018. Screening of Pharmaceuticals in San Francisco Bay Wastewater. SFEI Contribution No. 910. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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Sun, J.; Davis, J.; Stewart, R. 2018. Selenium in Muscle Plugs of White Sturgeon from North San Francisco Bay, 2015-2017. SFEI Contribution No. 929. San Francisco Estuary Institute : Richmond, CA.
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2019
Sutton, R.; Chen, D.; Sun, J.; Greig, D. J.; Wu, Y. 2019. Characterization of brominated, chlorinated, and phosphate flame retardants in San Francisco Bay, an urban estuary. Science of the Total Environment 652, 212-223 . SFEI Contribution No. 859.

Flame retardant chemical additives are incorporated into consumer goods to meet flammability standards, and many have been detected in environmental matrices. A uniquely wide-ranging characterization of flame retardants was conducted, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 52 additional brominated, chlorinated, or phosphate analytes, in water, sediment, bivalves, and harbor seal blubber of San Francisco Bay, a highly urbanized estuary once considered a hot spot for PBDE contamination. Among brominated flame retardants, PBDEs remained the dominant contaminants in all matrices, though declines have been observed over the last decade following their phase-out. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and other hydrophobic, brominated flame retardants were commonly detected at lower levels than PBDEs in sediment and tissue matrices. Dechlorane Plus (DP) and related chlorinated compounds were also detected at lower levels or not at all across all matrices. In contrast, phosphate flame retardants were widely detected in Bay water samples, with highest median concentrations in the order TCPP > TPhP > TBEP > TDCPP > TCEP. Concentrations in Bay water were often higher than in other estuarine and marine environments. Phosphate flame retardants were also widely detected in sediment, in the order TEHP > TCrP > TPhP > TDCPP > TBEP. Several were present in bivalves, with levels of TDCPP comparable to PBDEs. Only four phosphate flame retardants were detected in harbor seal blubber: TCPP, TDCPP, TCEP, and TPhP. Periodic, multi-matrix screening is recommended to track contaminant trends impacted by changes to flammability standards and manufacturing practices, with a particular focus on contaminants like TDCPP and TPhP that were found at levels comparable to thresholds for aquatic toxicity.

Sun, J.; Davis, J. A.; Stewart, R.; Palace, V. 2019. Selenium in White Sturgeon from North San Francisco Bay: The 2015-2017 Sturgeon Derby Study. SFEI Contribution No. 897. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

This report presents the findings from a study evaluating selenium concentrations in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) tissues collected during the 2015-2017 Sturgeon Derby events in North San Francisco Bay. The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution of selenium among sturgeon tissues to inform the toxicological and regulatory interpretation of selenium measured in non-lethally collected tissues, including muscle plugs and fin rays. This technical report provides documentation of the study and presents its major findings.

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2020
Heberger, M.; Sutton, R.; Buzby, N.; Sun, J.; Lin, D.; Mendez, M.; Hladik, M.; Orlando, J.; Sanders, C.; Furlong, E. 2020. Current-Use Pesticides, Fragrance Ingredients, and Other Emerging Contaminants in San Francisco Bay Margin Sediment and Water. SFEI Contribution No. 934. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

The Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in San Francisco Bay (RMP) has recently focused attention on better characterization of contaminants in nearshore “margin” areas of San Francisco Bay. The margins of the Lower South Bay are mudflats and shallow regions that receive direct discharges of stormwater and wastewater; as a result, they may have higher levels of urban contaminants than the open Bay. In the summer of 2017, the RMP collected samples of margin
sediment in the South and Lower South Bay for analysis of legacy contaminants. The study described here leveraged that sampling effort by adding monitoring of sediment and water for two additional sets of emerging contaminants: 1) current-use pesticides; and 2) fragrance ingredients including the polycyclic musk galaxolide, as well as a range of other commonly detected emerging contaminants linked to toxicity concerns such as endocrine disruption.

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Sun, J.; Sutton, R.; Ferguson, L.; Overdahl, K. 2020. New San Francisco Bay Contaminants Emerge. SFEI Contribution No. 931. San Francisco Estuary Institute: Richmond, CA.

In 2016, the RMP launched a novel investigation to detect new or unexpected contaminants in Bay waters, as well as treated sewage (or wastewater) discharged to the Bay. This study used non-targeted analysis, a powerful tool that provides a broad, open-ended view of thousands of synthetic and naturally-derived chemicals simultaneously. We identified hundreds of contaminants, and the results have opened our eyes to urban stormwater runoff as an important pathway for emerging contaminants to enter the Bay.

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2022
Shimabuku, I.; Chen, D.; Wu, Y.; Miller, E.; Sun, J.; Sutton, R. 2022. Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphate esters and bisphenols in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Science of the Total Environment 813 . SFEI Contribution No. 982.

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and bisphenols are two classes of industrial chemicals that are ubiquitously detected in environmental matrices due to high global production and widespread use, particularly in the manufacture of plastic products. In 2017, water samples collected throughout the highly urbanized San Francisco Bay were analyzed for 22 OPEs and 16 bisphenols using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-Q Trap-mass spectrometry. Fifteen of the 22 OPEs were detected, with highest median concentrations in the order TCPP (42 ng/L) > TPhP (9.5 ng/L) > TBOEP (7.6 ng/L) > TnBP (7.5 ng/L) > TEP (6.7 ng/L) > TDCIPP (6.2 ng/L). In contrast, only two of 16 bisphenols, BPA and BPS, were quantified, with concentrations ranging from <0.7–35 ng/L and <1–120 ng/L, respectively. BPA and a few OPEs (EHDPP and TEHP) were primarily present in the particulate phase, while BPS and all other observed OPEs were predominantly found in the dissolved phase. Pairwise correlation analysis revealed several strong, positive correlations among OPEs, and few weak, negative correlations between OPEs and BPA, suggesting differences between the two classes with respect to their sources, pathways, and/or fate in the environment. Concentrations of OPEs and bisphenols observed in this study were generally consistent with reported concentrations in other estuarine and marine settings globally. TDCIPP exceeded existing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) at some sites, and six other compounds (TCrP, IDDPP, EHDPP, TPhP, TBOEP, and BPA) were observed at levels approaching individual compound PNECs (not considering mixture effects), indicating potential risks to Bay biota. These results emphasize the need to control releases of these contaminants in order to protect the ecosystem. Periodic monitoring can be used to maintain vigilance in the face of potential regrettable substitutions.

Shimabuku, I.; Chen, D.; Wu, Y.; Miller, E.; Sun, J.; Sutton, R. 2022. Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphate esters and bisphenols in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Science of the Total Environment 813 . SFEI Contribution No. 982.

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and bisphenols are two classes of industrial chemicals that are ubiquitously detected in environmental matrices due to high global production and widespread use, particularly in the manufacture of plastic products. In 2017, water samples collected throughout the highly urbanized San Francisco Bay were analyzed for 22 OPEs and 16 bisphenols using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-Q Trap-mass spectrometry. Fifteen of the 22 OPEs were detected, with highest median concentrations in the order TCPP (42 ng/L) > TPhP (9.5 ng/L) > TBOEP (7.6 ng/L) > TnBP (7.5 ng/L) > TEP (6.7 ng/L) > TDCIPP (6.2 ng/L). In contrast, only two of 16 bisphenols, BPA and BPS, were quantified, with concentrations ranging from <0.7–35 ng/L and <1–120 ng/L, respectively. BPA and a few OPEs (EHDPP and TEHP) were primarily present in the particulate phase, while BPS and all other observed OPEs were predominantly found in the dissolved phase. Pairwise correlation analysis revealed several strong, positive correlations among OPEs, and few weak, negative correlations between OPEs and BPA, suggesting differences between the two classes with respect to their sources, pathways, and/or fate in the environment. Concentrations of OPEs and bisphenols observed in this study were generally consistent with reported concentrations in other estuarine and marine settings globally. TDCIPP exceeded existing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) at some sites, and six other compounds (TCrP, IDDPP, EHDPP, TPhP, TBOEP, and BPA) were observed at levels approaching individual compound PNECs (not considering mixture effects), indicating potential risks to Bay biota. These results emphasize the need to control releases of these contaminants in order to protect the ecosystem. Periodic monitoring can be used to maintain vigilance in the face of potential regrettable substitutions.