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Identification key (with photos) at: San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project web site (http://www.spartina.org).
Identification key in: Hickman, J. ed. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press.
Growth and spread
Habitat and local distribution
For maps of distribution, refer to http://www.spartina.org.
Prevention and Control
General control notes
Manual or mechanical control
References and more information
Collins, J. 2002. Invasion of San Francisco Bay By Smooth Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora: A Forecast of Geomorphic Effects On the Intertidal Zone. Report Prepared for US EPA Region 9. May 2002.
Daehler, C. 2000. Spartina alterniflora. In Invasive Plants of California Wildlands. Carla C. Bossard, John M. Randall, Marc C. Hoshovsky, Editors. University of California Press. Available at http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/Invasive_Plants_of_California's_Wildlands .
Gibbons, M.V., M.G. Rosenkranz, H.L. Gibbons, Jr., and M.D. Sytsma. 1999. Guide for Developing Integrated Aquatic Vegetation Management in Oregon. Center for Lakes and Reservoirs, Portland State University, Portland, OR.
Grossinger, R., J. Alexander, A. Cohen, and J. Collins. 1998. Introduced Tidal Marsh Plants in the San Francisco Estuary: Regional Distribution and Priorities for Control. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland California.
San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project web site (http://www.spartina.org). Contents of site includes species ID sheets, invasion impacts, distribution maps, control program information, project documents, and related web sites.
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