Why this guidebook?

  • Plants from around the world are invading our lakes, ponds, streams, sloughs, bays and wetlands. Some of these invasions cause serious economic and ecological problems: marinas get clogged with water hyacinth—stream sides get choked with ivy and tamarisk—native plants and animals become threatened or endangered. Local efforts can greatly help solve these problems. These guidelines are designed to help identify, prevent, and control the most serious plant invasions.
  1. A recurrent theme in this guidebook is that prevention and early intervention is by far the best way to control invasive plants. Invasive plants often establish themselves and flourish while those people who could have identified the fledgling invasion and made a critical early intervention stand idle, because they lack familiarity with the plants, control techniques, and the trouble that lies ahead if the invasion is allowed to continue.
  • This guidebook's goal is to provide you with information to take action against non-native plant invasions. Early detection of invasions can save vast amounts of labor and money. Prudent land managers and their staff will be familiar with all of these species, make control plans for existing invasions, and actively look for new arrivals.

Who should read this book?

  • Anyone can use this book to identify serious plant invasions in aquatic and wetland habitats of the San Francisco Bay-Delta and watershed. Natural resource managers, ranchers and farmers, marina and resort operators, duck club owners and reservoir managers can use these guidelines to learn about methods for preventing and controlling the invasions, and to contact government agencies and support groups that can provide further assistance. The guidebook's minimal use of botanical terminology increases readability for all.

Why these plants?

  • These plants are considered by Bay-Delta invasive plant experts to represent some of the most significant threats to Bay and Delta waterways and wetlands.



  • This guidebook was created by Michael May, Cristina Grosso, and Josh Collins at the San Francisco Estuary Institute, and made possible with funding and support from the CALFED Bay-Delta Authority and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Many thanks to the Guidebook review team:
    Deanne DiPietro, Sonoma State University
    Ben Greenfield, San Francisco Estuary Institute<
    Mike Vasey, San Francisco State University

  • SFEI greatly appreciates the use of photography from the following institutions:
    The University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
  • The Nature Conservancy Wildland Invasive Species Team
  • The San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project
  • Forestry Images. A joint project between Bugwood Network and the USDA Forest Service.
  • Title bar photo ©1998, Vic Ramey, University of Florida
This page has been accessed )-g@T``hnZ ~#JA=/''y t ih ~CXDWS^ ?==qx|f`j& IHdM($Ԫ%~OX4g`bz].09+Q ԟW/G2f>MX.a,H^KDH)}ȸVFB-^v \LU  gmjx"br9{_]djikY$64b}EBX:̃ ~M~zM?X`:*,C?;x?AE(uZL1t .ULˈn/:KQ:"- 2r*`QReЀz#H(2m6=@Va vOGC\zoY`Gi{Ͳll\C zOa:` ߒG%#e%ƌڠ`2]$qT{SŢr"OPwQ[1$ݎÿ1ƎG6{?Ƿ4߆Vp>nc~ƾ/nC9I8 mu4`q (cSB8~~S;~?AKjlkko ȕqãć]E,njO%B6YVOoqEVC5m>+ 1 "5:sSΩtzQӤ޼Q! ^5ŧl{Ee,^}28,Ҷv\h!| ]!Ci֠b;pA\*D_eW%|O9޳U/zK+iD T+^fy|bZgf@٧?ɈSKq P,-bյ٥i7 p=.T@:Ր=Gð(̀z:5C 5 ߁En+a3i3|@ge˜rjgi4IF񌽸?ʇz~h즮g2Ryf\9 fSx z@E>h0%AQ zi3(X3=ShSAz*ǡh ;qG ww`EfLǃˀ0H{Hլ5wHG2.aZw?:⼭* NanԚ"0d~S˫WGXkfc+E*z"fEOcN|h27wt0娯G=rѩac5FZOU v/"'8h}>\ɯڗWX\nZ$9ogkt/ٰ[G۟NJlr c|L r3(s|.k%]8G± "=V"cc8ȩ iQpG.dH2K{0Lq`CX`%~PXzi ka.)ͣ8D;YD"%c!VOD,,p[z+'9K[Nu3Wnb$vDX=Jit~EL"]<`Ǜ^=5:ɕOξ89SX}-fVm7MaT;3~J{ ^L15sgQ)"+r7:#LNCCNyb,&Vy~ѝj.~u~iABsp+e m zR *we [)r- @'\<`XPUV=ZD#˵"d5R rU`;v'`q:,zpa7ke>٘.Vݜ@! ʷt>32φ:yl֛ sL> d)E4 y#)YɁzd"Qk RBEaKԇÞ-z1\Dc2!=1xi%zʼnpL4 cx^ELJdl\`N"=[´*2KHr%0M 촊wb.)q;_f:<[PkIB]4ċ=`/z 鉘}慢 D+@.ޗ_&*z^ *[QT^B(/a^$j:&MlY 7{z.nY*ItEP c}r_E.O4Ym/I'M^Zճ5zxh.szW")Z^}973>S`rf48sϚt(=`r\a}f;N[I|֋G ;:]S)!<\P8x$Չ+ D$}Mמ%i l0[p"r >wy=qˆoM7}AwExH:v26֒7=!$SkĊy+qo'^\-OG&zn꺰ݾt>5/n KOz42#3$}PBzd@(iDmUs]NcWxj>Api?xֳhHveKg[h0]0d#N>9+21mvLzY-ڰȗj'!!DTf}-oڞD.gɏ$N?>ݴοoO~v:QhzY_i[p˙ۢ1 >f*z 湣D3m*蔞8ʇLlE]rTEFt0D[͆} ,;bU ؒ;1 \RpOzsa_@{%p1*ǼkPI7FjM5rH'~dug>*{ϵ!KجڗCnglh*.iCV(;Gj5 y*Czb $1gٮG.)r$%PrV&^uw> C;$'`YO>ꨣ!9 `b^:j}9=BDO K) >ѡ[ٙQ);v (J=@R0?ᑽ2Rѓ#|Ueŝ8.U@%u]Us;1oU9Ĭ-FPggo !nXRG\{Zxɗj!b3d>[ @GfѰߟur xßO\` yEnBxe}itA#"izώSTw11]3|6n֐FޫYFc *p srX9[ ]惺q85C"dDtQTX2^Q_Ơg}W. LwM8JF ЏP&RM>!!LxFxw8Y9' 'W16XXON!qVJɹ>(ZkÀ:Z֮;`q<^}qKzwǢ4ۇU^$i$j?UR'!u!6V\8iiכEPgd dQgYA?`n Et1(vN 'd oN}"P>^VD׿7G=~Y6v5f\oaEXZV}38̦;A6E"Zj(]wH fH2xhW8 hJJ>L#A_QIYXC=7P3 z!rk믷v793*G(ax/#[O?"bED"7mDJ{/2(TsE* P>!R X G]:Zz/AOLcيX_iUWTz5>e싶C&Z times.